Wednesday, 17 September 2014

ANTARCTICA


ANTARCTICA


Antarctica is the coldest continent on earth. Temperature can reach between -80oC and -90oC. East Antarctica is even colder then the Western region. Winds can reach high speed of 150 km. The Ice sheet covered 2.4 per cent of the whole 14 million sqkm. It is 4,776 meter at its thickest.  In the water surround the Antarctic continent as penguins, whales, seals and krills.

There are no land mammals. Eskimos and polar bears living in the Arctic regions.

Antarctic below 50 degrees has one long day and one long night each year. The seasons are opposite the Arctic. The sun sets in March and rise in October.


MOUNT EREBUS ON 
ROSS ISLAND HAS 
AN ACTIVE VOLCANO

Antarctica the ice covered continent at the South Pole. It is assumed that the first person discovered Antarctica was the Russian explorer Fabian von Bellinghousen in 1820

British, French and American scientific and geographical expedition was made through the 19th century.

The Norwegian Carsten Borchgrevink commanded the British Southern Cross expedition and stayed during the winter on the continent in 1899. The next decade Antarctica became a great rivalry and the quest for the unknown pushed explorers to the limits of endurance. Otto Nordenskjold of Swedish nationality explored Antarctica Peninsula all along the east coast from 1901 to 1904.


SHACKLETON EXPEDITION 






SHACKLETON 
EXPEDITION TEAM





The British explorers Robert Scott and Ernest Shackleton led three parties between 1901 and 1913 from Ross Island which is off the Antarctic coast. They made important discoveries in geology and meteorology. Shackleton and his men came within 97 miles (156km) of the South Pole in 1909. They had to turn back because their supplies run low and wouldn’t have enough for the return journey.

========================================================

PLEASE, PLEASE BE SO KIND AND CLICK ON ADVERTS.  THANK YOU
========================================================

Roal Amundsens and his Norwegian party was the first to reach the Pole on December 14, 1911. Robert Scott and his men reached the Pole a month later. Unfortunately, all the men died on the return journey. The last two were only 11 miles (17km) from the supply depot and safety.

Afterwards most of Antarctica was mapped from the air.

The Norwegian-British-Swedish expedition made scientific journeys into the interior between 1949-1952. They laid the foundation for the International Geophysical Year 1957-8. During this year 12 nations set up more than 50 stations during the Antarctic winter.

Since 1957, the Special Committee in Antarctic Research has coordinated all fieldwork.
Countries made territorial claims in Antarctica since. They are Britain, New Zealand, Australia, France Norway, Chile and Argentina. 

An Antarctic Treaty had been signed in 1961 by these countries plus Belgium, Japan, South Africa, the USSR and the USA. At a later date Brazil, China, India, Poland, Uruguay, Italy and Germany signed.  The treaty was for preserving Antarctica for peaceful purposes. It pledges scientific cooperation and forbids nuclear explosions and the disposal of radioactive waste. Furthermore a 50 year ban on all mining was agreed in 1991.

A study of the hole in the ozone layer are also made on Antarctic


ANTARCTICA NEAR THE COAST

No comments:

Post a Comment