Friday, 27 July 2012

TANZANIA

                                  

DAR ES SALAAM
The Tanzania Republic has a population of 27.8 million.  The country is a size of 939,760 sq km.
Tanzania is in the middle of Africa and on Africa’s lower east coast.  On the south border is Kenya and on its east border is Zaire.  It also borders on Uganda, Rwanda, Burundi, Zambia, Malawi and Mozambique.  The country has three huge lakes which are part of its border.  The Victoria Lake is in the north.  The Tanganyika Lake in the south and Malawi Lake is in the south-west.  Lake Malawi is in the Great Rift Valley which is a huge crack in the Earth surface and is from north to south through East Africa.
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LANDSCAPE AT THE NORTHERN TANZANIA -- INSIDE THE RIFT VALLEY
From the Rift Valley rises a plateau of 100m above sea level.  The plateau is most of Tanzania but slops steeply towards the coastal plain.   This area has forest which creates a hot and humid climate.  Inland is where the savannah plains stretches endlessly.  Here from horizon to horizon isn’t a man-made thing to be seen.  There are not many places which offer this experience.  The savannah is hot and dry and has an average temperature of 25oC all year round.  From March to May is the rainy season.  The huge baobab trees, which grow there, are perfect because they store water in their trunks.



SAVANNAH, AT NGORONGORO RESERVATION


On the savannah live a wide variety of animals.  An ever increasing number of tourists come there to watch elephants, lions, zebra and many other animals, as well as birds.   The annual migration of the wildebeest in the Serengeti is also a great attraction.   Serengeti means wide open space in Masai.  The language is used by the local people.  The largest of the game reserves in Tanzania was named Serengeti.   The country established many game reserves totalling up to 25% of Tanzania.  It has the largest proportion of game reserves in the world. 

The mountain Kilimanjaro is also a favourite tourist’s destination.   It has a height of 5895m and is Africa’s highest peak.  It is made up of three volcanoes which are extinct.  The highest peak is called Uhuru and in the Swahili language it means freedom.   It is part of the Northern Highlands which is on the border with Kenya. 
Their main industry is tourism and the other agriculture.  Millet, maize, cassava, beans and sweet potatoes are grown on the plateau.  For the export market they grow coffee, cashew nuts and cotton. 
                                                                                                                            
Tanzania has 120 tribal groups and they herd cattle outside the reserves.  The most famous is the Masai who were warriors and lived right across the savannah.  The other well known tribe is the Swahili who live along the coastal plain and their language is spoken all over East Africa. 

The capital of Tanzania is Dodoma but the government seat is in Dar es Salaam.    Dar es Salaam was founded in the 19th century and the name is Arabic which means ‘haven of peace’.



ZANZIBAR

On the island of Zanzibar, which is part of Tanzania, came and stayed many people from far away.  The island is made up of coral and has a hot and humid climate.  .The neighbouring island is called Pemba.  They had Arab rulers for many years and it reflects in their religion and architecture.   Later on they were under Indian and after that Portuguese rule.   Zanzibar was also called the spice island.  It is the world’s biggest exporter of cloves

In the Olduvai George, which is closed to the Serengeti National Park, a human skull was found in 1959.  Test established that is was 1.75 million years old.   The same team came upon humanoid footprints preserved in volcanic ashes of the Ngorongoro Crater.  Up till now they are still the only records of human walking upright and on two feet.  The archaeologists are convinced that this part of Africa is the birthplace of modern humans’ ancestor. 

LION AT THE SERENGETI RESERVE

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