Tuesday, 24 April 2012

PERU



CONGRESS IN THE 
PALACIO LEGILATIVO IN LIMA
Peru's people living in a difficult terrain and the country have a long history.
Peru is in the south-west of South American;  Ecuador and Colombia are in the north;  Brazil and Bolivia in the east and Chile in the south.  It is five times larger than the UK and Andean mountains are dominant
The country has three complete different region. Each with its unique character, climate and wildlife.
A flat plain of desert lies between the mountains and the Pacific ocean. The climate is influenced by the cold current of the Humboldt Sea. It flows all along the Peruvian coast. The current cools the ocean so much that the rain clouds open up over the sea and the rain doesn't reach the land. Therefore, very little rain falls on the land.
HARBOUR

SAN ISIDRO 
FINANCIAL DISTRICT

However, this narrow coastal region is surprisingly the most productive agricultural land. It is done with lots irrigation. At the lower end, cotton, fruit and sugar-cane are grown.

Further up are maize, potatoes, beans and a grain called gainais are grown. On the eastern lowlands coffee, tobacco and quinine are grown.

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Peru has a wealth of mineral deposits such as gold, silver, copper, lead, zinc, vanadium and bismuth. They also discovered oil in the northern coastal areas.
Not many factories exist but they do produce clothing, paper and cement.
Peru has a wealth of wildlife and is too many to list, especially with the Amazonian species. The nutrient-rich Humbolt current support a large variety of fish, birds and mammals. The bird population on the coast is so large and gave Peru new industries which is harvesting and exporting the bird-dropping. It is a very rich fertilizer. However, over fishing have reduced the once huge amount of anchovies and the coastal wildlife of sea lions, dolphins and birds suffered.
Lake Titicaca is the world's highest lake. It lies at 4000m above sea level. The Uro Indians built island of reef and houses on it. The last pure-blooded Uro Indian died in 1959.
Llamas were domesticated about 4000 years ago and used all over Peru as pack animals. The Alpaca is reared for its wool. The Guanaco and the Vicuna are the wild species of these domesticated animals. However, they are almost extinct in the wild. The chinchilla which is a large, hopping rodent is almost extinct because being hunted for its luxurious fur.
The people of Peru are living mostly on the coastal plain. One-third of the population live in the capital of Lima.

Quechuas count for 50% of the people and are descendant of the Incas. Only 20% are Spanish decent. Indian festivals are very colourful with bright coloured costumes and masks. The Roman Catholic Saints are mixed with the ancient Indian mythology.
QUECHUA  WOMAN  
IN  THE ANDES REGION

In contrast to the barren coastal plains is the valley lying in between the mountainous region of the Andes.  The valleys have water and therefore are very fertile.  They grow oranges, avocados, custard apples, papayas and bananas.
Further up the Quechua region at 2300-3500m wheat and maize is grown because of heavier rainfall. 
The Puna  zone is at 3500m and above and has damp grassland.  The night temperature often falls below freezing.  It is only suitable for grazing sheep and Llamas.
ANDES THE SOURCE
OF PERUVIAN RIVERS 

On the ice-covered peaks of the Andes little survives because of the high-level of ultra-violet radiation and the low level of oxygen. 

On the eastern side of the Andes the moisture rises from the Amazon basin and covers ferns and trees growing on gentle slopes.  

At the edge is the impossible to penetrate Amazon jungle.  This area cover 60% of Peru but only 9% of the population live there.

The Inca Empire was widespread in Peru and neighbouring countries from about 1200 to 1535 AD. The Inca civilization was remarkable.  The ancient Inca city of Machu Picchu shows a sophisticated irrigation system, superb roads and a central administration with a welfare system to make sure that very few went hungry. 
MACHU PICCHU

When the Spanish conquistador Francisco Pizarro landed in Peru in 1532, he subdued the Incas. Spain had control for almost 300 years. The Inca's population was reduced from 10-15 million to 600,000 by 1824 when Peru became independent.
During the 20th century Peru has a long list of attempting democracy and military coups. Now it is dominated by the powerful trade of cocaine. Trafficking cocaine and corruption is wide spread.

Another damaging effect has the extreme revolutionary movement Sendero Luminoso which means Shining Path.
Alberto Fujimori became president in 1990. He inherited an inflation rate of 7600%. He suspended Congress and introduced rule by degree. He was re-elected.


VIEW OF MACHU PICCHU FROM HUAYNA PICCHU SHOWING THE HRAM BINGHAM HIGHWAY USED BY TOOUR BUSES TO AND FRO FROM THE TOWN AGUAS CALIENTED


MACCHU PICCHU RECONSTRUCTED INCA BUILDING



RESIDENTIAL SECTION

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